“1959 First Ever Barbie Commercial” Commercial, 1:02. Posted by “BarbieCollectors,” May 21, 2007. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h8-avPUxyno. (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This is the first Barbie commercial which emphasizes femininity in terms of being “beautiful”, which I later contrast to a new commercial emphasizing material goods and jewelry.
Amadika. “36-24-36 = Modern Slavery.” Flickr.com,.http://www.flickr.com/photos/amadika/2354089283/in/photostream/ (accessed March 27, 2013).(Accessed April 22, 2013).
This was the source of the picture on the “Depiction of Female Body” page.
Barbaro, Adriana and Jeremy Earp. “Consuming Kids: The Commercialization of Childhood.” Documentary, 66:06. Filmed 2008, posted by “ vidyanidhi das,” July 23, 2012. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2XSaaQjuuK0.(Accessed April 22, 2013).
This documentary explores the history and current issues of children consumerism due to intense marketing strategies. The video uses Barbie as a prime example of the evolution and intensity of marketing techniques.
“Barbie & Ken.” The Sun http://www.thesun.co.uk/sol/homepage/news/4767626/human-barbie-ken-fall-out-in-row-over-make-up-and-operations.html. (Accessed March 10, 2013).
This web article discusses two “real-life” dolls and how they feel about their own bodies as well as each other’s bodies.
“Barbie Nation: An Unauthorized Tour.” Documentary. Flash Video. Directed by Susan Stern. 1998: El Rio Productions, 2013.(Accessed March 20, 2013).
This video looks at the history of Barbie and her place in pop culture.
Bennett, Dave. “Getting the Id to Go Shopping: Psychoanalysis, Advertising, Barbie Dolls, and the Invention of the Consumer Unconscious”. Public Culture 17, No.1 (2005):1-25. doi:10.1215/08992363-17-1-1. (Accessed March 1, 2013).
This article discusses the psychological discovery of the consumer unconscious developing from a post-World War II economy and sense of patriotism. This article directly relates to Barbie in that she was invented during this era and her success is largely due to the compulsive shopping and new marketing strategies aimed at developing an unconscious shopper.
Bosman May. “The Long-Buried Dolls of Mehenkwetre.” New York Times (1857-1922), Mar 20, 1921.http://ezproxy.umw.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/98487165?accountid=12299. (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This article is an in depth analysis of the dolls found in Mehenkwetre’s tomb that display different stages of his life.
“Bratz Beat Barbie in Court.” ABC News: Nightline video, 4:46. Posed on April 21, 2011. http://abcnews.go.com/Nightline/video/barbie-bratz-dolls-matel-lawsuit-toys-kids-13432976. (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This video is about the multiple court cases involving Bratz and Barbie. The video by ABC news not only discusses the court cases, but can be used to show the popularity of Barbie still prevails today.
Darden, Kathryn. “Barbie Basics – 12.” Examiner.com. http://www.examiner.com/article/barbie-basics-12-barbie-dolls-put-a-new-spin-on-the-little-black-dress-with-slideshow (accessed March 27, 2013).
This article discusses the new line of “Back to Basics” Barbies. It was the source of the image on “The Future of Barbie” page.
Davis Suro, Mary. “Hopi Kachina Dolls of the Southwest.” New York Times (1923-Current File),Aug30,1992.http://ezproxy.umw.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/108983211?accountid=12299. (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This news paper article is about the Hopi Indian’s belief of the spiritual world through Kachina dolls.
Dittrick, Howard. “Chinese Medicine Dolls.” Bulletin of the History of Medicine 26, (Jan 01, 1952): 422. http://ezproxy.umw.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/1296260441?accountid=12299. (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This article explains why the dolls from China were important in medicine practices.
do Rego Barros, Izabel Falcão. “The Business of Barbie®.” (1998). (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This article talks about Barbie as a business and their marketing strategies.
Duhigg, Charles. Picture of Elliot and Ruth Handler in “Elliot Handler, Co-Founder of Mattel Toys, Dies at 95” The New York Times. Originally posted Feb. 7, 1959. Reposted July 22,2011. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/07/23/business/elliot-handler-co-founder-of-mattel-toys-dies-at-95.html. (Accessed April 22, 2013).
This is a picture of Ruth and Elliot assembling a rocket in 1959. It demonstrates their love for each other and passion for toy creation.
Ferrell, O.C. and Michael D. Hartline. “Mattel: Overcoming Marketing and Manufacturing Challenges” in Marketing Strategy Fifth Edition. Ohio: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011. 457-467. Ebook. http://books.google.com/books?id=Lt12ggizMhIC&pg=PA458&dq=from+paper+dolls+to+barbie&hl=en&sa=X&ei=En0mUenCN4y20QHvmYDoCA&ved=0CDsQ6AEwATgy#v=onepage&q=from%20paper%20dolls%20to%20barbie&f=false.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This textbook offers a section on Mattel corporation specifically looking at their ethical obligation to consumers. This section is particularly important to their Barbie line because so many people believe that Barbie has negative impacts on the female aspirations and views.
Gray, Eliza. “Her Cups Runneth Over: Barbie turns 50- she looks good, doesn’t she? –and gets dueling biographies as a gift” The Daily Beast. February 20, 2009. http://www.grayeliza.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/01/barbie.pdf.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This article celebrates Barbie’s fiftieth birthday, while discussing the controversy behind her birth. The article specifically cites Oppenheimer account of the biography of Barbie.
Gerber, Robin. Barbie and Ruth: The Story of the World’s Most Famous Doll and the Woman Who Created Her. HarperCollins, 2009.
This book gives the history of Barbie as well as information on the women who created her, Ruth Handler.
Hausser, R and et al. Doll. US Patent 2,925,684, filed September 24, 1956, and issued February 23, 1960.
This is the patent for the Bild-Lilli, antecedent to Barbie. It is used to demonstrate the intense competition between G&H and Mattel.
Hough Walter Head Curator,of Anthropology. “The Story of Dolls Tells the Story of Mankind.” New York Times (1923-Current File), Mar 06, 1927. http://ezproxy.umw.edu:2048/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/103983348?accountid=12299.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This article goes into detail on how dolls have transformed over civilizations.
Ketchum, William C. Jr., Toys & Games. London: Cooper-Hewitt Museum, 1981.
This source is an introduction to various toys, including dolls.
Jaffe, Deborah. The History of Toys: From Spinning Tops to Robots. Stroud: Sutton Publishing Limited, 2006.
This source is a comprehensive history of toys.
Mark, Joshua, “In the afterlife of the Field of Reeds,” Suite 101, March 2010, http://suite101.com/article/shabti-dolls-a217851.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This article discusses the Ushbati dolls of Egypt and their belief in an afterlife.
Mattel Inc v. Greiner and Hausser GMBH No. 02-56272. 2003. U.S. App. (9th Cir. May 13, 2003). http://caselaw.findlaw.com/us-9th-circuit/1061319.html
This document reviews the historical background of the Mattel and G&H case from 1961, while discussing the decision of the 2003 court case.
“Mattel My Scene Swappin’ Styles Commercial Ad” Commercial, 0:30. Posted by “Calicool17,” May 4, 2009.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This commercial emphasizes the material nature of Barbie.
Moore, Kasey. “Bratz, Barbie, and Monster High.” Photograph. Fredericksburg, Va., 2013. From personal collection. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kasmoore/8585777535/in/photostream.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This is a picture of Barbie and her two biggest competitors, Monster High dolls and Bratz.
Moore, Kasey. “Technology Barbie.” Photograph. Fredericksburg, Va., 2013. From personal collection. http://www.flickr.com/photos/kasmoore/8593923528/in/photostream/lightbox/.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This picture emphasizes the 360 degree marketing style of Mattel. Mattel used Barbie icon image to sell numerous other items including headphone, bikes, and play dough.
O’Barr, William. “Children and Advertising” Advertising & Society Review 9, no. 4 (2008).From muse.jhu.edu.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This article explores the evolution of advertising from the 1950s thorough 1970s with heavy emphasis on commercials and television. It’s especially relevant because Barbie, being inventing in 1954, used these new advertising techniques.
Oppenheimer, Jerry. Toy Monster: The Big, Bad World of Mattel. New Jersey: Wiley. 2009.
This book opens wide the hidden controversy in the Mattel corporation, specifically looking at Barbie. I specifically use this book for the account of the “Father of Barbie”, a story of Jack Ryan previously untold.
PBS. “Ruth Handler: Marketing Toys“ on PBS: They Made America. June 30, 2004. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/theymadeamerica/filmmore/s3.html.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This website gave me the idea to look into Ruth Handler’s marketing techniques. This website put Ruth next Samuel Colt, Russell Simmons, and Thomas Watson as people who shaped America.
Pitkin, Melanie. Archaeology: Death in the Museum. http://www.powerhousemuseum.com/insidethecollection/category/object/death-in-the-museum/ (Accessed March 25, 2013).
This is a picture of Egytian dolls that were part of their burial ceremonies.
Retro Innovation. “Vintage Virden Lighting- 52 Page Catalog from 1959.” Photograph. 2013.http://retrorenovation.com/2013/01/30/vintage-virden-lighting-52-page-catalog-from-1959/. (Accessed April 22,2013)
This is a picture of a 1950s kitchen.
Rogers, Mary F. Barbie Culture. London: Sage Publications. 1999.
This book is a wonderful source for the impact of Barbie. It addresses femininity, child consumption, and sexuality as they all relate to Barbie. This book is great when used in tandem with the “Consuming Kids” documentary at looking into the new culture of consumption and how Barbie is a prime example of the consumer power of Barbie.
Ryan, Jack. Doll Construction. US Patent 3,009,284, filed July 24, 1959, and issued November 21, 1961.
This is that patent for Barbie construction. It is used to demonstrate Ryan participation in the invention of the doll and the likeness of Barbie to Lilli.
Sarkar, Soumodip. “Staying Alive: Struggles in Innovation Space” in Innovation, Market Archetypes and Outcomes: An Integrated Framework. York: Physica-Verlage. 2007. 103-108. Ebook. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-7908-1946-5_7#page-1. (Accessed March, 1, 2013).
Sarkar discuss the history and rapid growth of the toy industry in economic terms. It this section is specifically looks at the mechanism Mattel used in order to promote Barbie and destroy her competitors such as the Bratz dolls.
Schick, Vanessa R.“Evulvalution: The Portrayal of Women’s External Genitalia and Physique across Time and the Current Barbie Doll Ideals.” Journal of Sex Research 48, No. 1 (January 2011): 74-81. (Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This article discusses the impact of Barbie and how she depicts women’s bodies.
Schiedler, Bonnie and Tom. Bild Lilli doll sheer night gown ensemble. http://www.dollreference.com/bild_lilli_7.html (Accessed March 26, 2013)
This is a picture of Bild-Lilli, notice how closely she resembles Barbie.
Shelton, Henry. White Ogre Kachina. https://twitter.com/MuseumDirectors/status/293092939557662720 (Accessed March 25, 2013)
This is a picture of a Kachina doll and excellent example of primitive dolls.
Stone, Tanya Lee. The Good, The Bad, and The Barbie: A Doll’s History and Her Impact on Us. New York: Penguin Group, 2010.
This book discusses Barbie’s history as well as the history of dolls. It also talks about the impact she has had on society and young girls.
Townsend, Allie. “Barbie vs. Bratz: It’s a Doll-Eat-Doll World” in Time: Business & Money. April 22, 2011. http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,2067001,00.html.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
This article discusses the Bratz and Barbie court case which resolved in 2008.
Tucker, Elizabeth. Children’s Folklore: A Handbook. Westport: Greenwood Press, 2008.
This source provide information on how toys are used in folklore.
Walsh, Tim. Timeless Toys: Classic Toys and the Playmakers Who created Them. Kansas: Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2005.
Walsh tells the story of many toys throughout the nineteenth century including Barbie her antecedents.
Whiteley, Nigel. “Toward a Throw-Away Culture. Consumerism, ‘Style Obsolescence’ and Cultural Theory In the 1950s and 1960s.” The Oxford Art Journal 10, no.2 (1987):3-26. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1360444.(Accessed March, 1, 2013).
Whitely discusses the creation of the consumerism culture and the rise of the throw-away culture. This is particularly relevant to Mattel’s success because the cultural need for the newest and most fashionable item has kept Barbie forced Barbie to constantly be updating.